Article by Pirie Enzo, with contributions from National 100 and 200m Record Holder Ralph Waldy
Before i continue i would like to refer to a previous article i wrote which differentiates Hand timing and Electronic Timing.
i would like to see a clearer video. Ironically the stupid news writing blocks the view of the last frame of the crossing the line hence ruining the quality of the news video. I can tell due to the closeness of 1 and 2 there is no way that is a .2 difference of 11.1 and 11.3 .2 is around one or two strides.
To be honest the times in the final of the Palaro were a lot slower than the semi finals. Several coaches hand timed the top two athletes at around 10.8 and 10.9. Which begs into question the accuracy of the hand timing of the officials at the Palaro and whether we can really count these performances as certifiable by the IAAF.
Not trying to take anything away from the accomplishments of the athletes as winning a Palaro title (National High school) is still a big achievement for a young athlete. However there may have been cases where an athlete is robbed of a place or an accurate time. I’m not saying that this is an example of this as i need to see a clearer video than the one provided.
I cant make an accurate decision on if Nor actually won without seeing a better video. But what I do know is a lot of countries use electronic timing at HS and even at weekly meets. Its much fairer for the athletes if they have a photo finish in place.
We need to introduce Electronic timing and Photo Finish to the Palaro and other meets
That is why hand timing should never be really acknowledged. I mean, we are year 2013 already. Everything is on the technology age – why is it that a national HS competition still uses hand timing instead of electronic timing? Budget issues? Very shallow answer. Someone who’s in authority should lobby that to PSC and PATAFA should strongly push for this too.
Deped is in charge of the palaro not PATAFA or PSC anymore. Deped undoubtedly has the funds to hire an electronic system. I looked into the cost of electronics purchasing the equipment is atleast 60,000 USD. DEPED does have the budget to allocate towards hiring electronics. They just do not understand the importance as they are not as well informed as the PSC or PATAFA on sports.
Electronic Timing system is cheaper than that actually. I have a quotation from finish line coz were supposed to purchase that to support PATAFA events. If PATAFA can commit to us to convince other meets to use the system for at least 20 meets in a year then we can probably reconsider that previous plan. This should be a partnership with PATAFA project.
100m Kayla Richardson (98) 11.79 +0.7 (Fil-Heritage)
200m Kayla Richardson (98) 24.52 -0.3 (Fil-Heritage)
400m Timarya Baynard (96) 56.09 (Fil-Heritage)
800m Sarah Vitug 2:11.63 (Fil-Heritage)
1500m Vitug 4:27.65(Fil-Heritage)
3k Vitug 10:20.10 (Fil-Heritage)
5k Mercy Taypoc 19:05.6 (Baguio)
10k Road Mary Joy Tabal 38:01 (Cebu)
Half Marathon Mary Grace Delos Santos 1h20:28 (Cebu)
Marathon Miscelle Gilbuena 3h11:13
100m Hurdles Michelle Villas (96) 15.7 (Western Visayas)
Pole Vault Alyana Nicholas (94) 3.47m (Fil-Heritage) *NJR
High Jump Audrey Yorac (96) 1.63m (Rizal High School)
Long Jump Katherine Khay Santos 6.17m (Phi Team)
Triple Jump Mary Anthony Diesto (97) 11.61m (Western Visayas)
Shotput Maikahn De Oro (94) 10.70m (Western Visayas)
Dianne De Jesus 10.76m (Central Luzon) (junior shotput weight)
Discus De Oro 39.30m
Javelin Rosie Villairto 46.68m (Phi Team)
100m Daniel Noval 10.42 -0.3 (Phi Team) *NR
200m Andrew Pirie 22.45 (Fil-Heritage)
400m Joan Caido (94) 48.8 (Baguio)
800m Mervin Guarte 1:55.52(San Sebastian College)
(Track) Guarte 15:35.61
(Road) Rudyfer Hernandez 15:17.0
10k Anthony Nerza 33:23.2 (Davao Athletics)
10k Road Richard Salano 32:30.0 (University of the East)
Half Marathon Philip Duenas 1h13.08 (Cebu)
Marathon Erenio Raquin 2h38.40
3k Steeples Nerza 9:49.4
100 Hurdles Robin Tuliao 14.77
400 Hurdles Eric Cray 50.74 (Fil-Heritage) *NR
4x100m CSB NCAA Team 43.34
Long Jump Ernesto Ybanez (91) 7.01m (Cebu)
Triple Jump Mark Harry Diones 15.13m (JRU)
Pole Vault Caleb Monticalvo 5.05m (Fil-Heritage) *Not ratified as NR as no passport presented
Julio Alorro 4.82m (Indoors) (Fil-Heritage)
Shotput Rennick Alivio 13.41m
Discus John Albert Mantua 40.61m (JRU)
Javelin Melvin Calano 61.44m (JRU)
Article by Ryan Biddulph from Livestrong.com
Running at a high rate of speed is dependent upon your leg strength to bodyweight ratio. Improving leg strength for sports like short-distance running, football, basketball and soccer can help athletes sprint faster over short distances. Resistance training can help improve sprinting ability by developing muscle size, strength and power. Consult a physician before starting a resistance training regimen.
A limiting factor in the development of speed is a speed-strength imbalance between the hamstrings and quadriceps. Most training programs tend to focus on the quadriceps and neglect the hamstrings muscle, creating an imbalance which hinders speed gains. Use exercises like the stiff-legged deadlift and leg curls to strengthen the hamstrings and improve overall performance.
The leg extension works the quadriceps muscles to increase strength and speed. Sit on the leg extension machine with your legs under the pad and feet pointed forward, grasping the side bars. Adjust the pad so it falls just above your feet on the lower leg. Bodybuilding.com advises forming a 90-degree angle between your upper and lower leg to prevent stress on the knee joint. Extend your legs as far as possible, holding for a second at the maximum contraction. Gradually lower the weight to the starting position, being careful not to go past the 90-degree angle. Use a weight which is 50 to 60 percent of your leg extension one repetition maximum, or 1RM, for effective speed strength development.
Leg curls target the hamstring muscles on the back of your thigh and help develop speed. Sit on a leg curl machine, making sure your back is against the shoulder pad. Place the back of your lower leg on the lever and secure the lap pad against the thighs. Point your toes straight and grasp the side handles on the machine, keeping your legs straight. Flex your knees and pull the lever down as far as possible. Hold the contracted position for a second and slowly extend your knees to return to the starting position. Avoid swinging and jerking movements that can lead to injury. Select a weight which is 50 to 60 percent of your leg curl 1RM.
Former U.S. National Team Decathlon Team Coach Harry Marra advises performing fewer repetitions each month prior to the competition to develop speed. Perform 10 repetitions for each exercise during the first month, eight repetitions during the second month, six repetitions during the third month and four repetitions per exercise during the fourth month as your competitive season begins. Perform leg extensions, leg curls and other primary exercises for two days each week. Use a well-rounded resistance training program focusing on exercises like bench presses, squats and lat pull downs to recruit all of the muscles needed to improve speed.
Run for Change & Throwers Circle launch second throws Clinic in Baguio Schedule and DEPED Endorsement (updated)
The Department of Education in the Cordillera Administrative Region (DepEd-
CAR) encourages all school heads to send participants (athletes, teachers and non-teaching personnel) to the 3-DAY SEMINAR AND WORKSHOP which will be held on February 14 & 15 from 3:oo pm to 6:oo pm and on February 16, from 9:oo AM to 4:oo PM at Quezon Elementary School Social Hall (Baguio City) and school grounds.
DepEd-CAR Baguio, as a co-sponsor of this activity will grant service credit & certificate of overtime credit to teachers and non-teaching personnel respectively who will attend and participate actively in this sports activity. THIS 3-DAY SEMINAR AND WORKSHOP IS FREE as part of the Sports Development Program and Advocacy of Run for Change.
This 2nd leg of the Strength and Conditioning Seminar (3-day seminar and workshop) will be conducted by members of the National Coaching Staff for Athletics Nixon Mas, Danilo Fresnido and National Athlete Arniel Ferrera.
The School Division Superintendent of DepEd in Baguio City, Estela Leon-Cariño has endorsed this event
(see attached DepEd Indorsement dated February 11, 2013).
SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 14
3:00 – 3:15 PM Registration
3:00 – 3:30 Welcome Remarks
3:30 – 4:00 Introduction to Strength and Conditioning Programs and Sessions
4:00 – 4:45 The Essential Components of Principles of Training and Programming
4:45 – 5:30 Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Training
5:30 – 6:00 OPEN FORUM
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 15
3:00 – 3:30 PM Talent Identification
3:30 – 4:30 Specific Exercises for Strength and Conditioning
4:30 – 5:15 Creating a Training Program
5:15 – 5:45 Injury Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation
5:45 – 6:00 OPEN FORUM
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 16 (IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THROWERS CIRCLE)
9:00 – 10:30 AM Practical Session # 1
10:30 – 11:30 Open Forum
11:30 – 1:00 PM Lunch Break
1:30 – 3:00 Practical Session # 2
3:00 – 4:00 Open Forum
- Circle of Champions Clinic opens to all Philippine Throwers (pinoyathletics.com)
- Throwers Circle (pinoyathletics.com)
By Roy Stevenson
Warming up prepares the sprinter’s muscles by increasing the force of their muscle contractions and speeding up muscle contraction rate, giving the sprinter more power and speed. Warming up also helps nervous young athletes stabilize their adrenalin rush before competition, helping them better control their pre-event nervousness. Here’s how sprinters should go about warming up for races and training sessions.
Phase One: Start your sprinter’s warm up with 10-15 minutes jogging to increase body temperature–slow and easy.
Phase Two: This should follow on immediately after phase two and consists of 10-15 minutes of dynamic stretching exercises to reduce muscle stiffness. Dynamic
(ballistic) stretches through a wide range of motion work best because they are closer to the athlete’s actual movements in competition; and research shows that static stretching exercises do not simulate rapid running movement and may actually cause a reduction in leg power.
Phase Three: The sprinter progresses to 10-15 minutes of general and event-specific drills. These specific drills put the finishing touches on the warm up and prepare the athlete for sprint training. The drills usually include leg speed exercises, and it is here that pre-race and pre-training warm ups diverge.
- Cold Weather Warm-Ups (massageenvy.com)
- Plyometric Training for Sprinters (pinoyathletics.com)
- Flexibility in the Winter (motivationalfitnessmama.wordpress.com)
Warm-up at Stretching: Alin ang tama?
Warm-up at Stretching: Alin ang tama? Isang review article
Airnel T. Abarra
MS Human Movement Science (Candidate)
Kung tatanungin ang isang ordinaryong atleta o recreational runner na wala masyadong background sa Sports Science, sasabihin nila na ang warm-up ay ang pag-stretching kasama at pag-ikot ng ilang beses sa track oval hanggang mapawisan. Sa artikulong ito hihimayin ng may-akda ang mga literaturang may kaugnayan sa konsepto ng tamang warm-up at kung alin ang mas angkop na uri ng stretching at mga dapat gawin ukol dito.
Warm-up- Ayon kay Alter (1990), ang warm-up ay pangkat ng mga ehersisyo nag ginagawa bago ang isang ensayo na may pangunahing layunin na mapataas ang temperature sa katawan sa gayon maiwasan ang injury. May dalawang uri ng warm-up: ang Passive warm-up kung saan ang pamamaraan upang mapainit ang katawan ay ang pananatili sa isang mainit na lugar gaya ng sauna o pag-shower sa mainit na tubig at General warm-up o ang pagsasagawa ng mga kilos ng katawan upang maging mainit ang pakiramdam. Kabilang sa General warm-up ay jogging, paglalakad at iba pa.
Stretching- ito ay isang proseso ng pagpapabanat. Ang mga ehersisyo na ukol dito ay isinasagawa upang tumaas ang antas ng flexibility upang makuha at angkop na full range of motion sa piniling isport. (Alter, 1990)
Batay sa kahulugan na nabanggit, malinaw na makikita na magkaiba ang warm-up at stretching. Kaya mali na sabihin na ang warm-up at stretching ay iisa. Ang susunod na katanungan ay alin ang dapat mauna, stretching o warm-up at vice versa?
Ayon sa artikulo ni Torres (3isgreaterthan1.com, 2012) dapat na mauna ang pag-warm-up kaysa stretching. Nakapagdudulot ito ng paghina ng muscle kung full range of motion ang pag-uusapan. Sinang-ayunan din ito ni Alter (1990) na dapat mauna ang warm-up bago ang stretching dahil magiging mas mabisa ang muscles kung mainit na ang temperatura nito (Young at Behm, 2002).
Susunod na katanungan ay anong uri ng stretching ang dapat gawin, Static ba o Dynamic?
Static stretching- ito ay isang uri ng stretching kung saan ay binabanat ang muscles at mananatili sa isang posisyon sa ilang segundo. Ayon kay Torres (3isgreaterthan1.com, 2012) at sa kanyang mga literaturang sinangguni na hindi mainam na magsagawa ng static stretching pagkatapos ng warm-up at nakapagdudulot din ito ng paghina ng lakas ng muscle kung gagawin ito (Young at Behm, 2002).
Dynamic stretching- mga uri ng ehersisyo kung saan ay ginagaya ang mga pangunahing kilos na kailangan sa isport na kinabibilangan. Sa pag-aaral na ginawa nina McMillan et al. (2006) kung saan pinaghambing nila ang Dynamic, static at walang warm-up natuklasan nila na mabisa ang dynamic na uri ng warm-up kung ihahambing sa static at walang warm-up. Pinatunayan din nina Soligard et al. (2008) sa kanilang mga ehersisyong ipinagawa sa mga babaeng atleta ng Football na ang mga dynamic na uri ng ehersisyo ay mas mas mabisa kung ihahambing sa static lalo na kung ginawa ito bilang warm-up.
Sa kabila ng mga patunay sa kabisaan ng Dynamic na uri ng warm-up o stretching at pagsasagawa ng warm-up bago ang mga ehersisyo, makabubuti pa rin na magsagawa ng pag-aaral ukol dito sa lokal na kalagayan. Sa gayon magkaroon ng paghahambig at mapalawak ang pananliksik ukol sa isports sa Pilipinas lalo sa larangan ng Athletics o Track and Field. *
Paala-ala: Kung may mungkahi o puna sa artikulo, mangyaring makipag-ugnayan gamit ang e-mail address sa itaas.
Alter, M (1990) Sports Stretch. Leisure Press IL
McMillan DJ et al. (2006) Dynamic vs. Static-Stretching Warm up: The Effect on Power and Agility Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2006, 20(3), 492–499
Torres M. (2012) To Stretch or Not to Stretch Before Training & Racing. 3 is greater than 1 website retrieved 05-July-2012 http://3isgreaterthan1.com/blog/to-stretch-or-not-to-stretch/
Young & Behm (2002) Should Static Stretching Be Used During a Warm-Up for Strength and Power Activities? National Strength & Conditioning Association Volume 24, Number 6, pages 33–37
Support the Throwers Circle be a part of the bigger picture.
Throwers Circle is a Organization of Shot Put, Discus, Hammer and Javelin Throwers
- To increase awareness on the the event of hammer, javelin, shot-put and discus
- To create a venue for throwers from different schools, universities, teams and provinces to come together to share their knowledge and experiences
- To create a solid support group for aspiring and competitive athletes
- To establish clear and transparent standards for performance and ranking
- Bi-weekly meetings with athletes, coaches and trainers
- Train with national athletes and individuals from other Universities and provinces
- Lectures and Discussions
- Form, Technique, Biomechanics
- Training Programs
- Regular performance tests and ranking system
- Two National Competitions per year
National Competition and Conference
- 3 day Throws Competition
- Tune up for Philippine National Games in May
- Standardized performance tests
- National Ranking Lists
How to Become a Member?
- Annual Membership – Php 800/year
- Semi-annual Membership – P450/half-year
- Free access to lectures, handouts, training sessions
- Membership Card / Identification Card
- Training Shirt
- P30% discount at Semi-Annual National Competition
- 15% DISCOUNT IF YOU REGISTER BEFORE FEBRUARY
Tudor Bompa is known to many as the man who single-handedly revolutionized Western training methods. Name your favorite strength coach and very likely he’s been strongly influenced by the work of Tudor Bompa. Learn his secrets!
By: Mike Mahler
Feb 21, 2003
Tudor Bompa is known to many as the man who single-handedly revolutionized Western training methods. After more than forty years of work in the arena of international sports, he’s widely considered one of the world’s leading specialists when it comes to periodization, planning, peaking, and strength and power lifting. Name your favorite strength coach and very likely he’s been strongly influenced by the work of Tudor Bompa.
Like many top coaches, Bompa began as an athlete himself and competed as a rower in the 1956 Olympic Games. As a coach (if one can even use that limiting term to describe him), Bompa has worked with athletes in eleven Olympic Games and World Championships, and has helped create four gold medals and 22 national champions. He’s presented his training theories is over 30 countries.
In other words, this guy knows his stuff!
Currently, Bompa is a full-time professor at York University in Toronto Ontario. Luckily, he took the time to sit down to an interview with Mike Mahler.
Testosterone: How did you first get interested in strength training?
Tudor Bompa: My athletic background is in track and field, and later on I got into rowing and cross country skiing. I was amongst the first athletes to incorporate a great deal of strength training into training for skiing. That was back in the early 1960′s! My improvements were so visible that many other competitors were aghast. Because of my gains in upper and lower-body strength, I was able to use the skating technique for many parts of the race. Equally important was the use of my superior force in the arms.
Greetings from Run for Change and the Thrower’s Circle!
Run for Change (Run4change Inc.) is a non-profit organization driven by its passion for sports development coupled with the vision of a society that believes in the power of sports in promoting positive change in oneself, the community, and the nation. Since 2008, Run for Change has been implementing its three-pronged Sports Advocacy Program composed of Sporting Events, Sports Education and Sports Development.
As part of its Sports Advocacy Program, Run for Change will be formally organizing the THROWERS’ CIRCLE, an association of hammer, shot-put, discus and javelin throwers who share the same passion for the sport. As part of its inaugural activities, we will be conducting a throwers clinic and symposium for athletes and coaches from January 19-23, titled “Circle of Champions.”
For this activity, we have invited Mr. James Wong Tuck Yim to the Philippines to lead the throwers clinic and be the lead speaker for the symposium. James is currently the General Manager and Chief of Sports Development and Performance of the Singapore Athletics Association. He holds the honor of being the most bemedalled athlete in South East Asia for a single event (discus) with 10 SEA Games Gold Medals spanning two decades from 1993-2011. He also currently holds the SEA Games Discus Record. He is currently the Chairman of the Athletes Commission under the Singapore National Olympic Committee, of which he is also an Executive Committee member.
The schedule of activities will be as follows:
|SATURDAY||January 19 (ULTRA Audio Visual Room)|
|1:00-1:30||Clinic and Symposium Registration|
|Introduction of the Throwers’ Circle|
|1:30-3:00||Lecture # 1 – Hammer Throw by Arniel Ferrera (see below)|
|3:00-4:30||Lecture # 2 – Javelin Throw by Danilo Fresnido (see below)|
|SUNDAY||January 20 (ULTRA Audio Visual Room)|
|10:00-12:00||Introduction of guest lecturer – James Wong|
|Lecture # 3 – Strength and Conditioning for Throwers|
|2:00-5:30||Lecture # 4 – Throwing Drills by James Wong|
|MONDAY||January 21 (ULTRA)|
|8:00-10:30AM||Practical Session # 1 & 2|
|10:30-12:00PM||Lecture # 3|
|2:00-3:00||Practical Session # 3|
|3:00-5:30||Performance Tests and Mini Competition|
|5:30-6:30||Formal Launch of Throwers’ Circle|
|Awarding of Certificates of Attendance and Participation|
As such, we would like to invite your College and High School athletes and their coaches to be a participant for this three-day clinic and workshop. The throws clinic will have as attendees the top throwers from all disciplines (hammer, shotput, discus and javelin) coming from different Universities, Colleges and members of the National Team. The symposium will be conducted jointly by James Wong, Arniel Ferrera and Danilo Fresnido, all SEA Games Champions. The lectures shall be made open to all athletes and coaches interested in learning new techniques, developments in strength and conditioning and performance training. This will be on a first come, first served basis. Confirmation is required. We can only accommodate 25 athletes for the clinic, but we can accommodate as many participants for the lectures. THIS WILL BE FREE TO ALL INVITEES. Please confirm before Thursday, 17 January 2013.
This is a great opportunity to meet and link up with other athletes who share the same passion for their sport. This kind of exposure doesn’t come very often. Hopefully, with the establishment of the Throwers’ Circle and we can help increase opportunities for collaboration and cooperation, especially in Sports Development.
We hope this letter reaches you at a good time and we look forward to your most favorable response to this request. Should you have any questions or suggestions, you may contact us at 0939 234 4287 or through email at firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also confirm your attendance with our event Secretariat, Ms. Phoebe Buquing, at 0999-999-3742 or 0917-533-3742 or at email@example.com.
ARNIEL B. FERRERA
Interim Convenor, Throwers’ Circle
SEA Games Record Holder and Champion, Hammer Throw
National Record Holder, Hammer Throw – 2009 to present
National Junior Record Holder, Hammer Throw – 2000 to present
National Junior Record Holder, Discus – 2000 to present
DANILO G. FRESNIDO
Founding Member, Throwers’ Circle
SEA GAMES Champion, Javelin Throw – 2003, 2005, 2009
National Record Holder, Javelin Throw – 2009 to present
CHRISTOPHER DOMINIQUE C. HEY
Founding Member, Throwers’ Circle
UAAP Shot-put Champion – 2008 to 2010
Phil. Unigames Shot-put Champion – 2008, 2010
UAAP Junior Record Holder, Discus – 2006 to 2012
KARL I. FRANCISCO
Founding Member, Throwers’ Circle
UAAP Champion, Hammer Throw – 2008 to 2010
(updated 18 January 2013, 6:45PM)
HAMMER THROW MODULE
III. FIRST TURN/TRANSITION
IV. SECOND TURN
V. THIRD TURN
VI. RELEASE AND RECOVERY
JAVELIN THROW MODULE
II. APPROACH PHASE
III. 5-STRIDE RHYTHM PHASE (Withdrawal )
IV. 5-STRIDE RHYTHM PHASE ( Impulse Stride )
V. DELIVERY PHASE
Part 1: Transition
Part 2: Power Position
Part 3: Final Arm Movement
VI. RECOVERY PHASE
- Multiple SEA Games Champion James Wong quest for SEA Games Athletics History (pinoyathletics.com)
- Interview: Laguna Sports and Games Development Office (PSGDO) Head Albert Abarquez (pinoyathletics.com)
Circle of Champions – Certificates of Participation and Attendance now available
Last January 19-21, Throwers Circle conducted their inaugural event titled, “Circle of Champions: A 3-day Throwing Clinic.” The clinic was conducted by none other than 10 time SEA Games Gold Medalist James Wong (General Manager of Singapore Athletic Association and Chief of Sports Development & Performance) and SEA Games Record Holder for Hammer Throw Arniel Ferrera. They also had with them National Coaching Staff members Nixon Mas and Danilo Fresnido, himself a National Record holder for the Javelin Throw.
Those who were able to complete the 5-sessions will receive a Certificate of Participation, while those who attended at least 3 sessions will receive a Certificate of Attendance.
This is an archive copy of a document originally located at http://www.ais.org.au/nutrition/FuelSprint.htm
At Olympic-level competition, sprint events include the 100m, 200m, 400m, 4 x 100m relay and 4 x 400m relay. The 100 m, and 400 m hurdles can also be considered as sprint events. Sprint and hurdle events rely primarily on the development of power through anaerobic energy.
Elite sprinters train all year round with the base or off-season involving around eleven sessions per week. Off-season training usually involves a considerable commitment to weight training, with about one-third of the total training load being carried out in the gym. In addition, off-season training focuses on refining technique with a combination of sessions on the track and drill work to improve aspects such as leg speed or knee lift. Stretching sessions, yoga, and pilates are often included to aid in recovery. As the competitive season approaches, track work increases to include more intervals and sprints, although technique work and weight training are still maintained. Junior and recreational sprinters spend less hours training and training is usually seasonal.
Major competitions for elite sprinters are the Olympic Games, World Championships and Grand Prix Circuit. Most Australian sprinters spend the winter months overseas returning to Australia to compete in key selection events during the Australian summer. At junior and recreational levels, competitions are usually held on a weekly basis during the summer months.
Common Nutrition Issues
Sprinters need to consume sufficient carbohydrate to fuel training needs, however carbohydrate requirements do not reach the level of endurance-type athletes. Sprinters need to be mindful of maintaining low body fat levels but still need to eat a sufficient variety and quantity of food to meet nutritional requirements and allow for the development of muscle mass. Diets need to be nutrient-dense. This is best achieved by including a wide variety of nutrient-dense carbohydrate sources such as bread, cereal, fruit, vegetables and sweetened dairy products in the diet. Moderate portions of lean sources of protein such as lean meat, skin-free chicken, eggs, low-fat dairy foods, lentils and tofu should also be on the menu. Energy-dense foods such as cakes, pastries, lollies, soft drinks, chocolate, alcohol and takeaways should be used sparingly. Appropriate snacks need to be included before and after training to maximise performance during training and to promote recovery. Snack foods such as yoghurt, fresh fruit, low-fat flavoured milk and sandwiches are all nutritious fuel foods and make good snacks.
Low Body-Fat Levels
Sprinters require low body fat levels whilst being strong and muscular. Low body-fat levels usually occur naturally for male athletes, thanks to the cumulative effect of training on the right genetic stock. However, male sprinters often need to reduce total body mass leading into the competition phase. Some of the additional muscle mass gained in off-season weight training is not sport specific, therefore needs to be trimmed to achieve an ideal racing body composition. Female sprinters often need to manipulate their food intake and training to achieve their desired body-fat levels. Sprinters needing to reduce their body fat level should target excess kilojoules in the diet. In particular, excess fat, sugary foods and alcohol can add unnecessary kilojoules and would be better replaced with more nutrient-dense foods. See Weight Loss for further information.
Preparation for Competition
Sprint events do not deplete glycogen stores therefore strict carbohydrate loading before a competition is not necessary. The day of competition is best tackled with glycogen stores topped up to their usual resting level. With a high-carbohydrate diet already in place for training needs, glycogen levels can be restored before competition with 24-36 hours of rest or very light training.
Competition Day Food and Fluid
Although sprint events only last seconds or minutes, competition can be a drawn out affair. A typical competition day involves a number of heats and finals with variable amounts of waiting around in between. Your nutritional goals are to keep hydrated, to maintain blood glucose levels and to feel comfortable – avoiding hunger but not risking the discomfort of a full stomach. It makes sense to start the day with a carbohydrate-based meal. The type of meal will depend on the timing of your event and your personal preferences. See Eating Before Exercise for further information. Experiment in training if an important competition is coming up so that you can be confident of your routine on race day. Take care to drink plenty of fluid when you are competing in hot weather.
Elite sprinters are required to travel interstate and overseas regularly to find quality competition opportunities. While this can be exciting, it can also be stressful. It is often hard to meet nutritional needs in unfamiliar surroundings, especially when time and finances are limited. Unusual foods, different standards of food hygiene, limited food availability and interference with usual routines can see athletes either gaining weight or failing to meet their nutritional requirements. The following tips may help:
- Be clear about your nutritional goals and stay committed while travelling.
- Do some investigation to find out what to expect at your destination.
- Plan your accommodation with meals in mind. Organising an apartment with cooking facilities gives you more control over your meals and can keep food costs down. If you choose not to cook, make sure your accommodation is conveniently located near shops and restaurants.
- Take a supply of snacks with you so you always have access to something suitable. Cereal bars, low fat 2 minute noodles, sports drinks, breakfast cereal and rice cakes are good options to pack.
- Make good choices in restaurants. Beware of hidden fat in restaurant meals. Don’t be afraid to ask the waiter about cooking methods and ingredients and request changes if necessary. Add carbohydrate to meals with plain bread, plain rice, fruit or juice if necessary.
Sprinters who adopt restricted eating habits to maintain low body fat levels can be at risk of a poor iron status. If in doubt, have your iron levels checked by a sports physician. In addition, a sports dietitian will be able to help athletes to increase their intake of iron-rich foods that are well absorbed by the body. Plant-based iron foods such as green vegetables are poorly absorbed compared to animal-based iron foods such as meat.
Some runners try to replace sound nutritional practices with vitamin pills, protein powders and liquid formulas. Popping a pill is not a quick fix to feeling flat and run down. Rather, it is necessary to address the issue of taking time to eat well and organising an appropriate training program with adequate rest. Addressing lifestyle habits and putting good healthy eating in place will be more useful than expensive pills. Some supplements can help in certain situations, but this is best assessed by a sports physician and sports dietitian. The AIS has developed a Sports Supplement Policy to assist athletes and coaches in making educated decisions on the use of dietary supplements and ergogenic aids. (http://www.ais.org.au/nutrition/SuppPolicy.htm)
Case Study: A long day on the track
Despite being the most promising sprinter in the region at last year’s interschool athletics carnival, Bernadette could only manage one bronze medal. Her program had been busy – heats of the 100 m at 9:15 am, semi-final at 12:30 pm, final at 3:00 pm and the 4 x 100 m relay at 4:15 pm. On the morning of the meet, Bernadette managed to grab only a couple of mouthfuls of toast as she rushed out the door. She consoled herself that she was too nervous to eat anyway.
By mid-morning, with the 100 m heats out of the way, Bernadette was ravenous. The pies, hot dogs and chips at the sports ground kiosk didn’t appeal so Bernadette chose some chocolate “for energy”. There was a delay in the start of the semis as the officials sorted out a timing problem. Bernadette felt herself becoming hot, dehydrated and hungry as she waited to race. She managed to make it through the semi but didn’t run well. There wasn’t enough time between the semi and final to make it across to the other side of the track for some water. Bernadette ran the final feeling tired from a dull headache and finished fourth. She also timed the baton change poorly in the relay and finished the day with third place in the relay – small comfort for the hours of training she had completed over the last three months.
This year the story was quite different, although her training program was unchanged and the meet program was almost the same as the previous year. The difference was a careful plan for competition day, organised in collaboration with her coach. Bernadette rose earlier than usual to allow herself time for a breakfast of cereal and fruit juice. She also packed a cooler of provisions for the day – foods and fluids that she had tested out in training over the previous month. After the 100 m heats, Bernadette had a sandwich, banana and fruit juice. She also took a bottle of cool sports drink to sip on leading up to the semis and final. After coming down from the excitement of winning the 100 m final, Bernadette was feeling too excited to eat and drink. However with an hour to go until the relay she knew it was important to have something. Bernadette was glad she had packed a ‘ready-to-go’ liquid meal supplement in her cooler. Refreshed and revitalised, she prepared for the last event and helped her team win a silver medal in a closely contested relay.
While Bernadette knows that her medals were not just the result of particular food or drinks, her careful organisation did allow her to do justice to her talent and training, rather than see it wasted with careless race-day mistakes.
In implementing it into your program, I would keep the reps short(3-5 sec.) and rest/recovery long to allow for maximum effort on each rep and full recovery between reps and sets. For an advanced athlete a workout could be 2 sets of four 3 sec. efforts with 2 min. recovery between reps and 5 min. between sets. A less accomplished athlete may only do 1 set.
Using a Weighted Sled for Acceleration Improvement
By Mike Boyle, MS, ATC
Before even beginning, let’s clear up one point.
Sport is about acceleration, not speed.
We have a problem in sports. Coaches consistently use the wrong term when discussing the quantity they covet most. Tests like the ten, twenty and forty yard dash are actually tests of acceleration not speed. You only need to look at world-class sprinters to realize that top speed is not even achieved until approximately 60 meters. As coaches our interest is not in top speed but, rather in acceleration, the zero to sixty of the auto world. How rapidly an athlete accelerates will determine success in team sports, not what the athletes absolute speed is.
- How to Increase acceleration and become a faster athlete (pinoyathletics.com)